Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
|12 Months Ended|
Dec. 31, 2017
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|Summary of Significant Accounting Policies||
3. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Basis of Presentation - The accompanying consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“U.S. GAAP”).
Use of Estimates – The preparation of consolidated financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the consolidated financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Making estimates requires management to exercise significant judgment. It is at least reasonably possible that the estimate of the effect of a condition, situation or set of circumstances that existed at the date of the consolidated financial statements, which management considered in formulating its estimate, could change in the near term due to one or more future intervening events. Accordingly, the actual results could differ significantly from estimates.
Significant estimates underlying the financial statements include the fair value of acquired assets and liabilities associated with acquisitions; assessment of goodwill impairment, other intangible assets and long-lived assets for impairment; allowances for doubtful accounts and assumptions related to the valuation allowances on deferred taxes, impact of applying the revised federal tax rates on deferred taxes, the valuation of stock-based compensation and the valuation of stock warrants.
Principles of Consolidation - The accompanying consolidated financial statements include the accounts of the Company, its wholly-owned subsidiaries and a variable interest entity. All significant intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.
Variable Interest Entity
The Company follows the guidance of accounting for variable interest entities, which requires certain variable interest entities to be consolidated by the primary beneficiary of the entities.
The Company’s management evaluated the relationships between the Company and Jiangxi PDN Culture & Media Co., and the economic benefits flow of the applicable contractual arrangements. The Company concluded that it is the primary beneficiary of Jiangxi PDN Culture & Media Co.. As a result, the results of operations, assets and liabilities of Jiangxi PDN Culture & Media Co. have been included in the Company’s consolidated financial statements as of November 16, 2017.
The significant agreements through which the Company exercises effective control over Jiangxi PDN Culture & Media Co. are:
● Agreement on Exclusive Technical Support, Consultation and Service, dated as of November 16, 2017 between PDN (China) International Culture Development Co., Ltd. and Jiangxi PDN Culture & Media Co., Ltd.
● Business Operation Agreement, dated as of November 16, 2017 between PDN (China) International Culture Development Co., Ltd. and Jiangxi PDN Culture & Media Co., Ltd.
● Equity Interest Pledge Agreement, dated as of February 26, 2018 between PDN (China) International Culture Development Co., Ltd., Maoji (Michael) Wang and Anyong Wu.
● Exclusive Stock Option Agreement, dated as of November 16, 2017 between PDN (China) International Culture Development Co., Ltd., Maoji (Michael) Wang and Anyong Wu.
● Intellectual Property Licensing Agreement, dated as of November 16, 2017 between PDN (China) International Culture Development Co., Ltd. and Jiangxi PDN Culture & Media Co., Ltd.
Financial Information of VIE
Liabilities recognized as a result of consolidating this VIE do not represent additional claims on the Company’s general assets. VIE assets can be used to settle obligations of the primary beneficiary. The financial information of Jiangxi PDN Culture & Media Co., which was included in the accompanying consolidated financial statements, is presented as follows:
Cash Equivalents - The Company considers cash equivalents to include all short-term, highly liquid investments that are readily convertible to known amounts of cash and have original maturities of three months or less.
Accounts Receivable - Accounts receivable represent receivables generated from fees earned from customers and advertising revenue. The Company’s policy is to reserve for uncollectible accounts based on its best estimate of the amount of probable credit losses in its existing accounts receivable. The Company periodically reviews its accounts receivable to determine whether an allowance for doubtful accounts is necessary based on an analysis of past due accounts and other factors that may indicate that the realization of an account may be in doubt. Account balances deemed to be uncollectible are charged to the allowance after all means of collection have been exhausted and the potential for recovery is considered remote. As of December 31, 2017 and 2016, the allowance for doubtful accounts amounted to $33,000, and $95,000, respectively.
Incremental Direct Costs - Incremental direct costs incurred in connection with enrolling members in the NAPW Network consist of sales commissions paid to the Company’s direct sales agents. The commissions are deferred and amortized over the term of membership, which is a 12 month period. Amortization of deferred commissions is included in sales and marketing expense in the accompanying consolidated statements of operations. Incremental direct costs amounted to $145,292 and $423,023 at December 31, 2017 and 2016, respectively. Amortization expense of deferred commissions amounted to $819,000 and $1,758,000 for the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2016, respectively.
Property and Equipment - Property and equipment is stated at cost, including any cost to place the property into service, less accumulated depreciation. Depreciation is recorded on a straight-line basis over the estimated useful lives of the assets which currently range from 3 to 5 years. Leasehold improvements are amortized over the shorter of their estimated useful lives or the term of the lease. Maintenance, repairs and minor replacements are charged to operations as incurred; major replacements and betterments are capitalized. The cost of any assets sold or retired and related accumulated depreciation are removed from the accounts at the time of disposition, and any resulting profit or loss is reflected in income or expense for the period.
Capitalized Technology Costs - In accordance with Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) 350-40, Internal-Use Software, the Company capitalizes certain external and internal computer software costs incurred during the application development stage. The application development stage generally includes software design and configuration, coding, testing and installation activities. Training and maintenance costs are expensed as incurred, while upgrades and enhancements are capitalized if it is probable that such expenditures will result in additional functionality. Capitalized software costs are amortized over the estimated useful lives of the software assets on a straight-line basis, generally not exceeding three years.
Business Combinations - ASC 805, Business Combinations (“ASC 805”), applies the acquisition method of accounting for business combinations to all acquisitions where the acquirer gains a controlling interest, regardless of whether consideration was exchanged. ASC 805 establishes principles and requirements for how the acquirer: a) recognizes and measures in its financial statements the identifiable assets acquired, the liabilities assumed, and any non-controlling interest in the acquiree; b) recognizes and measures the goodwill acquired in the business combination or a gain from a bargain purchase; and c) determines what information to disclose to enable users of the financial statements to evaluate the nature and financial effects of the business combination. Accounting for acquisitions requires the Company to recognize, separately from goodwill, the assets acquired and the liabilities assumed at their acquisition-date fair values. Goodwill as of the acquisition date is measured as the excess of consideration transferred and the net of the acquisition-date fair values of the assets acquired and the liabilities assumed. While the Company uses its best estimates and assumptions to accurately value assets acquired and liabilities assumed at the acquisition date, the estimates are inherently uncertain and subject to refinement. As a result, during the measurement period, which may be up to one year from the acquisition date, the Company may record adjustments to the assets acquired and liabilities assumed with the corresponding offset to goodwill. Upon the conclusion of the measurement period or final determination of the values of assets acquired or liabilities assumed, whichever comes first, any subsequent adjustments are recorded to the consolidated statements of operations.
Goodwill and Intangible Assets - The Company accounts for goodwill and intangible assets in accordance with ASC 350, Intangibles – Goodwill and Other (“ASC 350”). ASC 350 requires that goodwill and other intangibles with indefinite lives should be tested for impairment annually or on an interim basis if events or circumstances indicate that the fair value of an asset has decreased below its carrying value.
Goodwill is tested for impairment at the reporting unit level on an annual basis (December 31 for the Company) and between annual tests if an event occurs or circumstances change that would more likely than not reduce the fair value of a reporting unit below its carrying value. The Company considers its market capitalization and the carrying value of its assets and liabilities, including goodwill, when performing its goodwill impairment test.
Prior to January 1, 2017, when conducting its annual goodwill impairment assessment, the Company initially performed a qualitative evaluation of whether it is more likely than not that goodwill was impaired. If it was determined by a qualitative evaluation that it was more likely than not that goodwill was impaired, the Company then applied a two-step impairment test. The two-step impairment test first compared the fair value of the Company’s reporting unit to its carrying or book value. If the fair value of the reporting unit exceeded its carrying value, goodwill was not impaired and the Company was not required to perform further testing. If the carrying value of the reporting unit exceeded its fair value, the Company determined the implied fair value of the reporting unit’s goodwill and if the carrying value of the reporting unit’s goodwill exceeded its implied fair value, then an impairment loss equal to the difference was recorded in the consolidated statements of operations.
Effective January 1, 2017, the Company prospectively adopted the provisions of ASU 2017-04, ““Intangibles - Goodwill and Other (Topic 350): Simplifying the Test for Goodwill Impairment” (“ASU 2017-04”). ASU 2017-04 eliminates the second step of the goodwill impairment test. Therefore, for goodwill impairment tests occurring after January 1, 2017, if the carrying value of a reporting unit exceeds its fair value, the Company will measure any goodwill impairment losses as the amount by which the carrying amount of a reporting unit exceeds its fair value, not to exceed the total amount of goodwill allocated to that reporting unit.
As a result of the recurring operating losses incurred in NAPW since its acquisition in September 2014, the Company undertook a review of the carrying amount of its goodwill. The Company performed its review based on both qualitative and quantitative factors and determined that carrying value of NAPW’s goodwill exceeded its implied fair value. Accordingly, the Company recorded a goodwill impairment charge of $14,611,000 in the accompanying consolidated statement of operations and comprehensive loss during the year ended December, 31 2017.
Treasury Stock – Treasury stock is recorded at cost as a reduction of stockholders’ equity in the accompanying consolidated balance sheets.
Revenue Recognition – Revenue is recognized when all of the following conditions exist: (1) persuasive evidence of an arrangement exists, (2) services are performed, (3) the sales price is fixed or determinable, and (4) collectability is reasonably assured.
Membership Fees and Related Services
Membership fees are collected up-front and member benefits become available immediately; however those benefits must remain available over the 12 month membership period. At the time of enrollment, membership fees are recorded as deferred revenue and are recognized as revenue ratably over the 12 month membership period. Members who are enrolled in this plan may cancel their membership in the program at any time and receive a partial refund (amount remaining in deferred revenue) or due to consumer protection legislation, a full refund based on the policies of the member’s credit card company.
Starting January 2, 2018, we also offer a monthly membership for which we collect fees on a monthly basis and we recognize revenue in the same month as we collect the monthly fees.
Revenue from related membership services are derived from fees for development and set-up of a member’s personal on-line profile and/or press release announcements. Fees related to these services are recognized as revenue at the time the on-line profile is complete and press release is distributed.
Deferred Revenue – Deferred revenue includes customer deposits received prior to performing services which are recognized as revenue when revenue recognition criteria are met.
Professional Diversity Network provides career opportunities to our registered users. Our Career Advisors suggest job opportunities for our registered users based on their location and profile. In certain circumstances our Career Advisers offer career support services to our registered users, including resume writing, education opportunities and economic consultations. In certain circumstances we receive compensation from various business partners resulting from our job seeker referrals. The Company derives lead generation revenues pursuant to arrangements with its business partners. Under these arrangements, the Company matches its business partners with potential candidates, pursuant to specific parameters defined in each arrangement. The Company invoices on a monthly basis based upon the number of leads provided. Revenues related to lead generation are recognized in the month when the leads are sent to its business partners.
The Company’s business partners include educational institutions such as Keypath Education, QuinStreet and Education Dynamics in Noble Voice’s traditional, core business, as well as a broad array of corporations such as Avon Products, American Airlines, and Uber, among others.
The Company’s recruitment services revenue is derived from the Company’s agreements through single and multiple job postings, recruitment media, talent recruitment communities, basic and premier corporate memberships, hiring campaign marketing and advertising, e-newsletter marketing and research and outreach services. Recruitment revenue includes revenue recognized from direct sales to customers for recruitment services and events, as well as revenue from the Company’s direct e-commerce sales. Direct sales to customers are most typically a twelve month contract for services and as such the revenue for each contract is recognized ratably over its twelve month term. Event revenue is recognized in the month that the event takes place and e-commerce sales are for one month job postings and the revenue from those sales are recognized in the month the sale is made. Our recruitment services mainly consist of the following products:
Product Sales and Other Revenue
Products offered to members relate to custom made plaques. Product sales are recognized as deferred revenue at the time the initial order is placed. Revenue is then recognized at the time these products are shipped. The Company’s shipping and handling costs are included in cost of sales in the accompanying consolidated statements of operations.
Education and Training
The Company works with its business partners to provide education and training seminars to business people in China. Revenues are recognized in the month when the seminar takes place. A significant portion of our 2017 education and training revenue was generated from “The International Capital Leadership Summit” that was held on December 2, 2017 and featured Mr. Bruce Aust, Vice Chairman of the Nasdaq Exchange. Of the $2,875,000 Summit revenue, $2,565,000 was generated from an affiliated entity that was affiliated with certain CFL shareholders who had significant influence on this entity prior to August 2017.
Consumer Advertising and Marketing Solutions
The Company provides career opportunity services to its various partner organizations through advertising and job postings on their websites. The Company works with its partners to develop customized websites and job boards where the partners can generate advertising, job postings and career services to their members, students and alumni. Consumer advertising and marketing solutions revenue is recognized as jobs are posted to their hosted sites.
The Company’s partner organizations include NAACP and National Urban League,VetJobs, among others.
Advertising and Marketing Expenses – Advertising and marketing expenses are expensed as incurred or the first time the advertising takes place. The production costs of advertising are expensed the first time the advertising takes place. For the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2016, the Company incurred advertising and marketing expenses of approximately $2,859,000 and $2,694,000, respectively. These amounts are included in sales and marketing expenses in the accompanying consolidated statements of operations. At December 31, 2017 and 2016, there were no prepaid advertising expenses recorded in the accompanying consolidated balance sheets.
Concentrations of Credit Risk - Financial instruments, which potentially subject the Company to concentration of credit risk, consist principally of cash and cash equivalents and accounts receivable. The Company places its cash with high credit quality institutions. At times, such amounts may be in excess of the FDIC insurance limits. The Company has not experienced any losses in such accounts and believes that it is not exposed to any significant credit risk on the account.
Income Taxes - The Company accounts for income taxes in accordance with ASC 740, Income Taxes, which requires that the Company recognize deferred tax liabilities and assets based on the differences between the financial statement basis and tax basis of assets and liabilities, using enacted tax rates in effect for the year in which the differences are expected to reverse. The Company estimates the degree to which tax assets and credit carryforwards will result in a benefit based on expected profitability by tax jurisdiction. A valuation allowance for such tax assets and loss carryforwards is provided when it is determined to be more likely than not that the benefit of such deferred tax asset will not be realized in future periods. If it becomes more likely than not that a tax asset will be used, the related valuation allowance on such assets would be reduced.
ASC 740 clarifies the accounting for uncertainty in income taxes recognized in an enterprise’s financial statements in accordance with ASC 740-20 and prescribes a recognition threshold and measurement process for financial statement recognition and measurement of a tax position taken or expected to be taken in a tax return. For those benefits to be recognized, a tax position must be more-likely-than-not to be sustained upon examination by taxing authorities. There were no unrecognized tax benefits as of December 31, 2017. The Company is currently not aware of any issues under review that could result in significant payments, accruals or material deviation from its position.
The Company may be subject to potential income tax examinations by federal or state authorities. These potential examinations may include questioning the timing and amount of deductions, the nexus of income among various tax jurisdictions and compliance with federal and state tax laws. Management does not expect that the total amount of unrecognized tax benefits will materially change over the next twelve months. Tax years that remain open for assessment for federal and state tax purposes include the years ended December 31, 2013 through 2017.
The Company’s policy for recording interest and penalties associated with audits is to record such expense as a component of income tax expense. There were no amounts accrued for penalties or interest as of December 31, 2017.
Fair Value of Financial Assets and Liabilities - Financial instruments, including cash and cash equivalents, short-term investments and accounts payable, are carried at cost. Management believes that the recorded amounts approximate fair value due to the short-term nature of these instruments.
Net Loss per Share - The Company computes basic net loss per share by dividing net loss available to common stockholders by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding for the period and excludes the effects of any potentially dilutive securities. Diluted earnings per share, if presented, would include the dilution that would occur upon the exercise or conversion of all potentially dilutive securities into common stock using the “treasury stock” and/or “if converted” methods as applicable. The computation of basic net loss per share for the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2016 excludes the potentially dilutive securities summarized in the table below because their inclusion would be anti-dilutive.
Recently Issued Accounting Pronouncements
In May 2014, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) issued Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) No. 2014-09,”Revenue from Contracts with Customers,” which was subsequently modified in August 2015 by ASU No. 2015-14, “Revenue from Contracts with Customers: Deferral of the Effective Date.” As a result, the ASU No. 2014-09 is effective retrospectively for fiscal years and interim periods within those years beginning after December 15, 2017. The core principle of ASU No. 2014-09 is that companies should recognize revenue when the transfer of promised goods or services to customers occurs in an amount that reflects what the company expects to receive. It requires additional disclosures to describe the nature, amount, timing and uncertainty of revenue and cash flows from contracts with customers. In 2016, the FASB issued additional ASUs that clarify the implementation guidance on principal versus agent considerations (ASU 2016-08), on identifying performance obligations and licensing (ASU 2016-10), and on narrow-scope improvements and practical expedients (ASU 2016-12) as well as on the revenue recognition criteria and other technical corrections (ASU 2016-20). Since the Company is an Emerging Growth Company “EGC”, it will adopt the standard on January 1, 2019, using the modified retrospective transition method, which may result in a cumulative-effect adjustment for deferred revenue to the opening balance sheet for 2019 and the restatement of the financial statements for all prior periods presented. The Company continues to evaluate the impact of adoption of this standard on its consolidated financial statements and disclosures.
In February 2016, the FASB issued new lease accounting guidance ASU No. 2016-02, “Leases” (“ASU 2016-02”). Under the new guidance, at the commencement date, lessees will be required to recognize a lease liability, which is a lessee’s obligation to make lease payments arising from a lease, measured on a discounted basis; and a right-of-use asset, which is an asset that represents the lessee’s right to use, or control the use of, a specified asset for the lease term. The new guidance is not applicable for leases with a term of 12 months or less. Lessor accounting is largely unchanged. Public business entities should apply the amendments in ASU 2016-02 for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018, including interim periods within those fiscal years. Early application is permitted upon issuance. Lessees (for capital and operating leases) and lessors (for sales-type, direct financing, and operating leases) must apply a modified retrospective transition approach for leases existing at, or entered into after, the beginning of the earliest comparative period presented in the financial statements. The modified retrospective approach would not require any transition accounting for leases that expired before the earliest comparative period presented. Lessees and lessors may not apply a full retrospective transition approach. The Company is currently evaluating the impact of the new guidance on its consolidated financial statements.
In March 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-09, “Compensation - Stock Compensation (Topic 718): Improvements to Employee Share-Based Payment Accounting” (“ASU 2016-09”). ASU 2016-09 was issued as part of the FASB’s simplification initiative and affects all entities that issue share-based payment awards to their employees. The amendments in this update cover such areas as the recognition of excess tax benefits and deficiencies, the classification of those excess tax benefits on the statement of cash flows, an accounting policy election for forfeitures, the amount an employer can withhold to cover income taxes and still qualify for equity classification and the classification of those taxes paid on the statement of cash flows. ASU 2016-09 is effective for annual and interim periods beginning after December 15, 2016. This guidance can be applied either prospectively, retrospectively or using a modified retrospective transition method, depending on the area covered in this update. Early adoption is permitted. The Company adopted the methodologies prescribed by ASU 2014-15 as of January 1, 2017. The adoption of ASU 2016-09 did not have a material effect on the Company’s financial position or results of operations.
In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-13, “Financial Instruments – Credit Losses” (“ASU 2016-13”). ASU 2016-13 introduces a new model for estimating credit losses for certain types of financial instruments, including loans receivable, held-to-maturity debt securities and net investments in direct financing leases, amongst other financial instruments. ASU 2016-13 also modifies the impairment model for available-for-sale debt securities and expands the disclosure requirements regarding an entity’s assumptions, models, and methods for estimating the allowance for losses. ASU 2016-13 is effective for public business entities in fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019, including interim periods within those fiscal years, with early application of the guidance permitted. The Company is currently evaluating the impact of the new guidance on its consolidated financial statements.
In August 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-15, “Statement of Cash Flows: Clarification of Certain Cash Receipts and Cash Payments” (“ASU 2016-15”), which eliminates the diversity in practice related to the classification of certain cash receipts and payments in the statement of cash flows, by adding or clarifying guidance on eight specific cash flow issues: debt prepayment or debt extinguishment costs; settlement of zero-coupon debt instruments or other debt instruments with coupon interest rates that are insignificant in relation to the effective interest rate of the borrowing; contingent consideration payments made after a business combination; proceeds from the settlement of insurance claims; proceeds from the settlement of corporate-owned life insurance policies (including bank-owned life insurance policies); distributions received from equity method investees; beneficial interests in securitization transactions; and separately identifiable cash flows and application of the predominance principle. ASU 2016-15 is effective for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2018 and interim periods within fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019. Early adoption is permitted. ASU 2016-15 provides for retrospective application for all periods presented. The Company is currently evaluating the impact of the new guidance on its consolidated financial statements.
In October 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-16, “Income Taxes (Topic 740)” (“ASU 2016-16”), which reduces the complexity in the accounting standards by allowing the recognition of current and deferred income taxes for an intra-entity asset transfer, other than inventory, when the transfer occurs. This guidance is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018, and interim periods within fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019, with early adoption permitted using a modified retrospective transition approach. The Company is currently assessing the impact of the adoption of this guidance on its consolidated financial statements.
In January 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-01, “Business Combinations (Topic 805) Clarifying the Definition of a Business” (“ASU 2017-01”). The amendments in ASU 2017-01 is to clarify the definition of a business with the objective of adding guidance to assist entities with evaluating whether transactions should be accounted for as acquisitions (or disposals) of assets or businesses. The definition of a business affects many areas of accounting including acquisitions, disposals, goodwill, and consolidation. The guidance is effective for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2018, including interim periods within annual periods beginning after December 15, 2019. The Company is currently evaluating the impact of adopting this guidance.
In May 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-09, “Compensation - Stock Compensation (Topic 718): Scope of Modification Accounting “(“ASU 2017-09”). ASU 2017-09 provides clarity and reduces both (i) diversity in practice and (ii) cost and complexity when applying the guidance in Topic 718, Compensation-Stock Compensation, to a change to the terms or conditions of a share-based payment award. The amendments in ASU 2017-09 provide guidance about which changes to the terms or conditions of a share-based payment award require an entity to apply modification accounting in Topic 718. ASU 2017-09 is effective for all annual periods, and interim periods within those annual periods, beginning after December 15, 2017, with early adoption permitted. The adoption of ASU 2017-09 is not expected to have an impact on the Company’s financial position or results of operations.
In July 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-11, “Earnings Per Share (Topic 260); Distinguishing Liabilities from Equity (Topic 480); Derivatives and Hedging (Topic 815): (Part I) Accounting for Certain Financial Instruments with Down Round Features, (Part II) Replacement of the Indefinite Deferral for Mandatorily Redeemable Financial Instruments of Certain Nonpublic Entities and Certain Mandatorily Redeemable Noncontrolling Interests with a Scope Exception” (“ASU 2017-11”). ASU 2017-11 eliminates the requirement to consider “down round” features when determining whether certain equity-linked financial instruments or embedded features are indexed to an entity’s own stock. It is effective for annual periods beginning after December 31, 2018. Early adoption is permitted. The Company is currently evaluating the impact of adopting this guidance.
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/presentationRef