Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
|12 Months Ended|
Dec. 31, 2018
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|Summary of Significant Accounting Policies||
3. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Basis of Presentation - The accompanying consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“U.S. GAAP”).
Use of Estimates – The preparation of consolidated financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the consolidated financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Making estimates requires management to exercise significant judgment. It is at least reasonably possible that the estimate of the effect of a condition, situation or set of circumstances that existed at the date of the consolidated financial statements, which management considered in formulating its estimate, could change in the near term due to one or more future intervening events. Accordingly, the actual results could differ significantly from estimates.
Significant estimates underlying the financial statements include the fair value of acquired assets and liabilities associated with acquisitions; assessment of goodwill impairment, other intangible assets and long-lived assets for impairment; allowances for doubtful accounts and assumptions related to the valuation allowances on deferred taxes, impact of applying the revised federal tax rates on deferred taxes, the valuation of stock-based compensation and the valuation of stock warrants.
Principles of Consolidation - The accompanying consolidated financial statements include the accounts of the Company, its wholly-owned subsidiaries and a variable interest entity. All significant intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.
Variable Interest Entity
The Company follows the guidance of accounting for variable interest entities, which requires certain variable interest entities to be consolidated by the primary beneficiary of the entities.
The Company’s management evaluated the relationships between the Company and Jiangxi PDN Culture & Media Co., and the economic benefits flow of the applicable contractual arrangements. The Company concluded that it is the primary beneficiary of Jiangxi PDN Culture & Media Co.. As a result, the results of operations, assets and liabilities of Jiangxi PDN Culture & Media Co. have been included in the Company’s consolidated financial statements as of November 16, 2017.
The significant agreements through which the Company exercises effective control over Jiangxi PDN Culture & Media Co. are:
● Agreement on Exclusive Technical Support, Consultation and Service, dated as of November 16, 2017 between PDN (China) International Culture Development Co., Ltd. and Jiangxi PDN Culture & Media Co., Ltd.
● Business Operation Agreement, dated as of November 16, 2017 between PDN (China) International Culture Development Co., Ltd. and Jiangxi PDN Culture & Media Co., Ltd.
● Equity Interest Pledge Agreement, dated as of February 26, 2018 between PDN (China) International Culture Development Co., Ltd., Maoji (Michael) Wang and Anyong Wu.
● Exclusive Stock Option Agreement, dated as of November 16, 2017 between PDN (China) International Culture Development Co., Ltd., Maoji (Michael) Wang and Anyong Wu.
● Intellectual Property Licensing Agreement, dated as of November 16, 2017 between PDN (China) International Culture Development Co., Ltd. and Jiangxi PDN Culture & Media Co., Ltd.
Financial Information of VIE
Liabilities recognized as a result of consolidating this VIE do not represent additional claims on the Company’s general assets. VIE assets can be used to settle obligations of the primary beneficiary. The financial information of Jiangxi PDN Culture & Media Co., which was included in the accompanying consolidated financial statements, is presented as follows:
Cash Equivalents - The Company considers cash equivalents to include all short-term, highly liquid investments that are readily convertible to known amounts of cash and have original maturities of three months or less.
Accounts Receivable - Accounts receivable represent receivables generated from fees earned from customers and advertising revenue. The Company’s policy is to reserve for uncollectible accounts based on its best estimate of the amount of probable credit losses in its existing accounts receivable. The Company periodically reviews its accounts receivable to determine whether an allowance for doubtful accounts is necessary based on an analysis of past due accounts and other factors that may indicate that the realization of an account may be in doubt. Account balances deemed to be uncollectible are charged to the allowance after all means of collection have been exhausted and the potential for recovery is considered remote. As of December 31, 2018 and 2017, the allowance for doubtful accounts amounted to $75,000, and $33,000, respectively.
Incremental Direct Costs - Incremental direct costs incurred in connection with enrolling members in the NAPW Network consist of sales commissions paid to the Company’s direct sales agents. The commissions are deferred and amortized over the term of membership, which is a 12 month period. Amortization of deferred commissions is included in sales and marketing expense in the accompanying consolidated statements of operations. Incremental direct costs amounted to $21,000 and $145,000 at December 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively. Amortization expense of deferred commissions amounted to $239,000 and $819,000 for the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively.
Property and Equipment - Property and equipment is stated at cost, including any cost to place the property into service, less accumulated depreciation. Depreciation is recorded on a straight-line basis over the estimated useful lives of the assets which currently range from 3 to 5 years. Leasehold improvements are amortized over the shorter of their estimated useful lives or the term of the lease. Maintenance, repairs and minor replacements are charged to operations as incurred; major replacements and betterments are capitalized. The cost of any assets sold or retired and related accumulated depreciation are removed from the accounts at the time of disposition, and any resulting profit or loss is reflected in income or expense for the period.
Capitalized Technology Costs - In accordance with Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) 350-40, Internal-Use Software, the Company capitalizes certain external and internal computer software costs incurred during the application development stage. The application development stage generally includes software design and configuration, coding, testing and installation activities. Training and maintenance costs are expensed as incurred, while upgrades and enhancements are capitalized if it is probable that such expenditures will result in additional functionality. Capitalized software costs are amortized over the estimated useful lives of the software assets on a straight-line basis, generally not exceeding three years.
Business Combinations - ASC 805, Business Combinations (“ASC 805”), applies the acquisition method of accounting for business combinations to all acquisitions where the acquirer gains a controlling interest, regardless of whether consideration was exchanged. ASC 805 establishes principles and requirements for how the acquirer: a) recognizes and measures in its financial statements the identifiable assets acquired, the liabilities assumed, and any non-controlling interest in the acquiree; b) recognizes and measures the goodwill acquired in the business combination or a gain from a bargain purchase; and c) determines what information to disclose to enable users of the financial statements to evaluate the nature and financial effects of the business combination. Accounting for acquisitions requires the Company to recognize, separately from goodwill, the assets acquired and the liabilities assumed at their acquisition-date fair values. Goodwill as of the acquisition date is measured as the excess of consideration transferred and the net of the acquisition-date fair values of the assets acquired and the liabilities assumed. While the Company uses its best estimates and assumptions to accurately value assets acquired and liabilities assumed at the acquisition date, the estimates are inherently uncertain and subject to refinement. As a result, during the measurement period, which may be up to one year from the acquisition date, the Company may record adjustments to the assets acquired and liabilities assumed with the corresponding offset to goodwill. Upon the conclusion of the measurement period or final determination of the values of assets acquired or liabilities assumed, whichever comes first, any subsequent adjustments are recorded to the consolidated statements of operations.
Goodwill and Intangible Assets - The Company accounts for goodwill and intangible assets in accordance with ASC 350, Intangibles – Goodwill and Other (“ASC 350”). ASC 350 requires that goodwill and other intangibles with indefinite lives should be tested for impairment annually or on an interim basis if events or circumstances indicate that the fair value of an asset has decreased below its carrying value.
Goodwill is tested for impairment at the reporting unit level on an annual basis (December 31 for the Company) and between annual tests if an event occurs or circumstances change that would more likely than not reduce the fair value of a reporting unit below its carrying value. The Company considers its market capitalization and the carrying value of its assets and liabilities, including goodwill, when performing its goodwill impairment test.
When conducting its annual goodwill impairment assessment, the Company initially performs a qualitative evaluation of whether it is more likely than not that goodwill is impaired. If it is determined by a qualitative evaluation that it is more likely than not that goodwill is impaired, the Company then compares the fair value of the Company’s reporting unit to its carrying or book value. If the fair value of the reporting unit exceeds its carrying value, goodwill is not impaired and the Company is not required to perform further testing. If the carrying value of a reporting unit exceeds its fair value, the Company will measure any goodwill impairment losses as the amount by which the carrying amount of a reporting unit exceeds its fair value, not to exceed the total amount of goodwill allocated to that reporting unit.
As a result of the recurring operating losses incurred in NAPW since its acquisition in September 2014, the Company undertook a review of the carrying amount of its goodwill. The Company performed its review based on both qualitative and quantitative factors and determined that carrying value of NAPW’s goodwill exceeded its implied fair value. Accordingly, the Company recorded a goodwill impairment charge of $5,251,000, and $14,611,000 in the accompanying consolidated statement of operations and comprehensive loss during the year ended December, 31 2018 and 2017, respectively.
Treasury Stock – Treasury stock is recorded at cost as a reduction of stockholders’ equity in the accompanying consolidated balance sheets.
Revenue Recognition – Revenue is recognized when all of the following conditions exist: (1) persuasive evidence of an arrangement exists, (2) services are performed, (3) the sales price is fixed or determinable, and (4) collectability is reasonably assured.
Membership Fees and Related Services
Membership fees are collected up-front and member benefits become available immediately; however those benefits must remain available over the 12 month membership period. At the time of enrollment, membership fees are recorded as deferred revenue and are recognized as revenue ratably over the 12 month membership period. Members who are enrolled in this plan may cancel their membership in the program at any time and receive a partial refund (amount remaining in deferred revenue) or due to consumer protection legislation, a full refund based on the policies of the member’s credit card company.
Starting January 2, 2018, we also offer a monthly membership for which we collect fees on a monthly basis and we recognize revenue in the same month as we collect the monthly fees.
Revenue from related membership services are derived from fees for development and set-up of a member’s personal on-line profile and/or press release announcements. Fees related to these services are recognized as revenue at the time the on-line profile is complete and press release is distributed.
Deferred Revenue – Deferred revenue includes customer deposits received prior to performing services which are recognized as revenue when revenue recognition criteria are met, and membership fees for annual memberships that are collected at the time of enrollment and are recognized as revenue ratably over the 12 month membership period.
The Company’s recruitment services revenue is derived from the Company’s agreements through single and multiple job postings, recruitment media, talent recruitment communities, basic and premier corporate memberships, hiring campaign marketing and advertising, e-newsletter marketing and research and outreach services. Recruitment revenue includes revenue recognized from direct sales to customers for recruitment services and events, as well as revenue from the Company’s direct e-commerce sales. Direct sales to customers are most typically a twelve month contract for services and as such the revenue for each contract is recognized ratably over its twelve month term. Event revenue is recognized in the month that the event takes place and e-commerce sales are for one month job postings and the revenue from those sales are recognized in the month the sale is made. Our recruitment services mainly consist of the following products:
Product Sales and Other Revenue
Products offered to members relate to custom made plaques. Product sales are recognized as deferred revenue at the time the initial order is placed. Revenue is then recognized at the time these products are shipped. The Company’s shipping and handling costs are included in cost of sales in the accompanying consolidated statements of operations.
Education and Training
The Company works with its business partners to provide education and training seminars to business people in China. Revenues are recognized in the month when the seminar takes place.
Consumer Advertising and Marketing Solutions
The Company provides career opportunity services to its various partner organizations through advertising and job postings on their websites. The Company works with its partners to develop customized websites and job boards where the partners can generate advertising, job postings and career services to their members, students and alumni. Consumer advertising and marketing solutions revenue is recognized as jobs are posted to their hosted sites.
The Company’s partner organizations include NAACP and National Urban League,VetJobs, among others.
On May 25, 2018, the Company sold Noble Voice to a long-time customer of the Company and exited the business segment previously conducted by Noble Voice. The sales included all property, equipment, intangible assets, and other long-term assets. The Company retained cash, receivables, payables, and other current and non-current assets and liabilities. The purchase price was $200,000 and the gain on the transaction was approximately $64,000.
All historical operating results for Noble Voice are included in a loss from discontinued operations, net of tax, in the accompanying consolidated statement of operations. Certain reclassifications have been made to the 2017 consolidated financial statements to conform to the 2018 discontinued operations presentation. For the year ended December 31, 2018, loss from discontinued operations was $509,000, net of tax benefit of $52,000, compared to a loss of $711,000, net of tax benefit of $58,000 for the year ended December 31, 2017.
Assets and liabilities that the Company retained, which were previously reported in the Noble Voice operating segment, are now included in current assets from discontinued operations, and current liabilities from discontinued operations. As of December 31, 2018, the current assets from discontinued operations were $126,000, compared to $1,180,000 as of December 31, 2017. As of December 31, 2018, current liabilities from discontinued operations were $347,000 compared to $485,000 as of December 31, 2017.
Advertising and Marketing Expenses – Advertising and marketing expenses are expensed as incurred or the first time the advertising takes place. The production costs of advertising are expensed the first time the advertising takes place. For the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017, the Company incurred advertising and marketing expenses of approximately $1,375,000 and $2,859,000, respectively. These amounts are included in sales and marketing expenses in the accompanying consolidated statements of operations. At December 31, 2018 and 2017, there were no prepaid advertising expenses recorded in the accompanying consolidated balance sheets.
Concentrations of Credit Risk - Financial instruments, which potentially subject the Company to concentration of credit risk, consist principally of cash and cash equivalents and accounts receivable. The Company places its cash with high credit quality institutions. At times, such amounts may be in excess of the FDIC insurance limits. The Company has not experienced any losses in such accounts and believes that it is not exposed to any significant credit risk on the account.
Income Taxes - The Company accounts for income taxes in accordance with ASC 740, Income Taxes, which requires that the Company recognize deferred tax liabilities and assets based on the differences between the financial statement basis and tax basis of assets and liabilities, using enacted tax rates in effect for the year in which the differences are expected to reverse. The Company estimates the degree to which tax assets and credit carryforwards will result in a benefit based on expected profitability by tax jurisdiction. A valuation allowance for such tax assets and loss carryforwards is provided when it is determined to be more likely than not that the benefit of such deferred tax asset will not be realized in future periods. If it becomes more likely than not that a tax asset will be used, the related valuation allowance on such assets would be reduced.
ASC 740 clarifies the accounting for uncertainty in income taxes recognized in an enterprise’s financial statements in accordance with ASC 740-20 and prescribes a recognition threshold and measurement process for financial statement recognition and measurement of a tax position taken or expected to be taken in a tax return. For those benefits to be recognized, a tax position must be more-likely-than-not to be sustained upon examination by taxing authorities. There were no unrecognized tax benefits as of December 31, 2018. The Company is currently not aware of any issues under review that could result in significant payments, accruals or material deviation from its position.
The Company may be subject to potential income tax examinations by federal or state authorities. These potential examinations may include questioning the timing and amount of deductions, the nexus of income among various tax jurisdictions and compliance with federal and state tax laws. Management does not expect that the total amount of unrecognized tax benefits will materially change over the next twelve months. Tax years that remain open for assessment for federal and state tax purposes include the years ended December 31, 2013 through 2018.
The Company’s policy for recording interest and penalties associated with audits is to record such expense as a component of income tax expense. There were no amounts accrued for penalties or interest as of December 31, 2018.
Fair Value of Financial Assets and Liabilities - Financial instruments, including cash and cash equivalents, short-term investments and accounts payable, are carried at cost. Management believes that the recorded amounts approximate fair value due to the short-term nature of these instruments.
Net Loss per Share - The Company computes basic net loss per share by dividing net loss available to common stockholders by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding for the period and excludes the effects of any potentially dilutive securities. Diluted earnings per share, if presented, would include the dilution that would occur upon the exercise or conversion of all potentially dilutive securities into common stock using the “treasury stock” and/or “if converted” methods as applicable. The computation of basic net loss per share for the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017 excludes the potentially dilutive securities summarized in the table below because their inclusion would be anti-dilutive.
Recently Issued Accounting Pronouncements
In May 2014, the FASB issued ASU 2014-09, “Revenue from Contracts with Customers (“ASC 606” or “ASU 2014-09”). ASU 2014-09 supersedes the revenue recognition requirements in ASC Topic 605, “Revenue Recognition” and some cost guidance included in ASC Subtopic 605-35, “Revenue Recognition - Construction-Type and Production-Type Contracts.” The core principle of ASU 2014-09 is that revenue is recognized when the transfer of goods or services to customers occurs in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the Company expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services. ASU 2014-09 requires the disclosure of sufficient information to enable readers of the Company’s financial statements to understand the nature, amount, timing and uncertainty of revenue and cash flows arising from customer contracts. ASU 2014-09 also requires disclosure of information regarding significant judgments and changes in judgments, and assets recognized from costs incurred to obtain or fulfill a contract. In July 2015, the FASB voted to delay the effective date of ASU 2014-09 by one year to the first quarter of 2018 to provide companies sufficient time to implement the standards. ASU 2014-09 provides two methods of retrospective application, either the full retrospective or cumulative effect transition method. The first method would require the Company to apply ASU 2014-09 to each prior reporting period presented. The second method would require the Company to retrospectively apply ASU 2014-09 with the cumulative effect recognized at the date of initial application. ASC 606 requires companies to identify contractual performance obligations and determine whether revenue should be recognized at a point in time or over time based on when control of goods and services transfer to a customer. The Company has completed its initial assessment of the new standard and is in the process of assessing its contracts with customers, through a detailed review of their contract portfolio and comparing its historical accounting policies and practices to the new standard. The Company will continue to assess the impact through its implementation process. The Company expects to adopt ASC 606 using the modified retrospective transition method in the quarter ending March 31, 2019. The financial presentation and results of operations for reporting periods after January 1, 2019 will be presented under the new guidance, while financial presentation and results of operations for prior periods presented will continue to be reported in accordance with the legacy standard and the Company’s historical accounting policy. The Company’s adoption of ASU 2014-09 in 2019 did not have a material impact on the Company’s consolidated financial position, results of operations or cash flows.
In February 2016, the FASB issued new lease accounting guidance ASU No. 2016-02, “Leases” (“ASU 2016-02”), as amended by ASU 2018-10, “Codification Improvements to Topic 842, Leases” and ASU 2018-11, “Leases (Topic 842): Targeted Improvements.” Under the new guidance, at the commencement date, lessees will be required to recognize a lease liability, which is a lessee’s obligation to make lease payments arising from a lease, measured on a discounted basis; and a right-of-use asset, which is an asset that represents the lessee’s right to use, or control the use of, a specified asset for the lease term. The new guidance is not applicable for leases with a term of 12 months or less. Lessor accounting is largely unchanged. Public business entities should apply the amendments in ASU 2016-02 for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018, including interim periods within those fiscal years. Early application is permitted upon issuance. ASC 842 was previously required to be adopted using the modified retrospective approach. However, in July 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-11, which allows for retrospective application with the recognition of a cumulative-effect adjustment to the opening balance of retained earnings in the period of adoption. Under this option, entities would not need to apply ASC 842 (along with its disclosure requirements) to the comparative prior periods presented. Management expects that most of its operating leases (primarily office space) will be recognized as operating lease liabilities and right of use assets on its consolidated balance sheet. The Company has elected to adopt certain of the optional practical expedients, including the package of practical expedients, which, among other things, gives the option to not reassess: 1) whether expired or existing contracts are or contain leases; 2) the lease classification for expired or existing leases; and 3) initial direct costs for existing leases. Management has evaluated the impact of the adoption of this standard and expects to record right of use assets of $440,000 and lease obligations of $454,000.
In October 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-16, “Income Taxes (Topic 740)” (“ASU 2016-16”), which reduces the complexity in the accounting standards by allowing the recognition of current and deferred income taxes for an intra-entity asset transfer, other than inventory, when the transfer occurs. This guidance is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018, and interim periods within fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019, with early adoption permitted using a modified retrospective transition approach. The Company does not expect that the ASU will have a material impact on our financial condition or results of operations.
In January 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-01, “Business Combinations (Topic 805) Clarifying the Definition of a Business” (“ASU 2017-01”). The amendments in ASU 2017-01 is to clarify the definition of a business with the objective of adding guidance to assist entities with evaluating whether transactions should be accounted for as acquisitions (or disposals) of assets or businesses. The definition of a business affects many areas of accounting including acquisitions, disposals, goodwill, and consolidation. The guidance is effective for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2018, including interim periods within annual periods beginning after December 15, 2019. The Company does not expect that the ASU will have a material impact on our financial condition or results of operations.
In February 2018, the FASB issued ASU No. 2018-02, “Reclassification of Certain Tax Effects from Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income” (“ASU 2018-02”). ASU 2018-02 allows for the reclassification of certain income tax effects related to the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act between “Accumulated other comprehensive income” and “Retained earnings.” This ASU relates to the requirement that adjustments to deferred tax liabilities and assets related to a change in tax laws or rates to be included in “Income from continuing operations”, even in situations where the related items were originally recognized in “Other comprehensive loss” (rather than in “Loss from operations”). ASU 2018-02 is effective for all entities for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018, and interim periods within those fiscal years, with early adoption permitted. Adoption of ASU 2018-02 is to be applied either in the period of adoption or retrospectively to each period in which the effect of the change in the tax laws or rates were recognized. The Company does not expect that the ASU will have a material impact on our financial condition or results of operations.
In June 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-07, “Compensation — Stock Compensation (Topic 718): Improvements to Nonemployee Share-Based Payment Accounting” (“ASU 2018-07”), which expands the scope of Topic 718 to include all share-based payment transactions for acquiring goods and services from nonemployees. ASU 2018-07 specifies that Topic 718 applies to all share-based payment transactions in which the grantor acquires goods and services to be used or consumed in its own operations by issuing share-based payment awards. ASU 2018-07 also clarifies that Topic 718 does not apply to share-based payments used to effectively provide (1) financing to the issuer or (2) awards granted in conjunction with selling goods or services to customers as part of a contract accounted for under ASC 606. ASU 2018-07 is effective for annual reporting periods, and interim periods within those years, beginning after December 15, 2018. The Company does not expect that the ASU will have a material impact on our financial condition or results of operations.
In August 2018, the FASB issued ASU No. 2018-15, Intangibles - Goodwill and Other - Internal-Use Software (Subtopic 350-40): Customer’s Accounting for Implementation Costs Incurred in a Cloud Computing Arrangement That Is a Service Contract. This standard aligns the requirements for capitalizing implementation costs incurred to develop or obtain internal-use software, regardless of whether they convey a license to the hosted software. The accounting for the service element of a hosting arrangement that is a service contract is not affected by this ASU. The amendments are effective for public business entities for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019, and interim periods within those fiscal years. Early adoption is permitted, including adoption in an interim period. The Company is currently assessing the impact of the adoption of this guidance on its consolidated financial statements.
In October 2018, the FASB released ASU No. 2018-17, Consolidation (ASC 810): Targeted Improvements to Related Party Guidance for Variable Interest Entities, which improves the consistency of the application of the variable interest entity (VIE) related party guidance for common control arrangements. The amendments require reporting entities to consider indirect interests held through related parties under common control on a proportional basis rather than as the equivalent of a direct interest in its entirety (as currently required in GAAP) when determining whether a decision-making fee is a variable interest. ASU 2018-17 will be effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019, including interim periods within those fiscal years, and early adoption is permitted. The amendments should be applied retrospectively with a cumulative-effect adjustment to retained earnings at the beginning of the earliest period presented. The Company does not expect that the ASU will have a material impact on our financial condition or results of operations.
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://fasb.org/us-gaap/role/ref/legacyRef